Peter Mandaville, Daily Star Lebanon, Rap emerges as an added form of Muslim expression and mobilization, 30 Aug 2010 "Listening to South Asian Muslim teenagers in the post-industrial British city of Bradford, one can understand how Islamic faith and American hip-hop music have come to coexist. Searching for music that reflects their own experiences with alienation, racism and silenced political consciousness, many teens, even some quasi-religious groups, have turned to the urban music of black America."
Refers to Mecca2Medina, an early Muslim rap group in the UK. I still have their 12" vinyl releases (anyone remember vinyl records?).
This article was originally in YaleGlobal Online